Fossilized tree resin, typically golden-brown in color, used for jewelry and carvings.
A purple variety of quartz, known for its vibrant color and often used as a gemstone in jewelry.
A blue to blue-green variety of the mineral beryl, valued for its serene color and clarity.
A group of phosphate minerals, occurring in a variety of colors including blue, green, and yellow.
A variety of quartz with shimmering inclusions, often green but can occur in other colors.
A green variety of chalcedony with red spots resembling drops of blood.
A red or reddish-brown variety of chalcedony, often used for engraved seals.
A transparent, yellow to brownish-orange variety of quartz, often used as a gemstone in jewelry.
A brilliant and highly valued gemstone composed of carbon atoms arranged in a crystal lattice structure.
A green variety of the mineral beryl, prized for its rich color and transparency.
Garnet (Varieties: Almandine, Pyrope, Rhodolite, Spessartine, Uvarovite, and Andradite):
A group of closely related minerals with various colors, including red, green, and orange, frequently used in jewelry.
An iron ore with a metallic luster, often used for beads and cabochons.
A tough, usually green gemstone often used in carvings and jewelry, composed of either jadeite or nephrite.
A blue silicate mineral used as a gemstone.
A feldspar mineral with a play of colors, often blue or green.
A deep blue, metamorphic rock that has been prized for centuries as a gemstone and ornamental material.
A green copper carbonate mineral, often banded with lighter and darker greens.
A feldspar mineral that exhibits a unique play of colors, often resembling the glow of the moon.
A volcanic glass with a smooth, shiny appearance, used for cabochons and beads.
A gemstone known for its iridescence and play-of-color, composed of silica spheres.
An organic gemstone produced within the soft tissue of a living shelled mollusk, valued for its luster.
A green gemstone variety of the mineral olivine, known for its vibrant color.
A red variety of the mineral corundum, highly valued for its color and hardness.
A gemstone variety of corundum, occurring in various colors, with blue being the most prized.
A blue-violet variety of the mineral zoisite, discovered in Tanzania and often used in jewelry.
Topaz (Varieties: Blue Topaz, Imperial Topaz:
A gemstone available in a variety of colors, including blue, yellow, and pink.
Tourmaline Varieties: Watermelon Tourmaline, Paraiba Tourmaline:
A group of minerals with various colors, including pink, green, and watermelon, commonly used in jewelry.
A blue to green mineral often used as a gemstone in jewelry, prized for its unique color.
An organic gemstone formed by the skeletal remains of marine polyps, often used in jewelry.
A gemstone available in various colors, often used as a diamond substitute in jewelry.
A gemstone that has been cut and polished with multiple flat surfaces, known as facets, to enhance its brilliance and sparkle.
A gemstone that has been shaped and polished into a smooth, rounded, and domed form without facets.
The ability of a gemstone to reflect light and create sparkle, often associated with faceted gemstones.
Mohs Scale of Hardness:
A scale that measures the relative hardness of minerals, determining their resistance to scratching. Commonly used for gemstones.
Any internal flaw, imperfection, or foreign material within a gemstone, visible under magnification.
The degree to which light can pass through a gemstone, affecting its overall appearance. Transparent, translucent, and opaque are common transparency levels.
The intensity or vividness of a gemstone's color, ranging from pale to highly saturated.
The dispersion of light into spectral colors as it passes through a gemstone, creating flashes of color.
A phenomenon where a gemstone exhibits a band of light that moves across its surface as it is viewed from different angles. Also known as the cat's eye effect.
A phenomenon where a gemstone exhibits a star-like pattern of rays when viewed under direct light. Common in star sapphires and star rubies.
A unit of measurement for gemstones, with one carat equivalent to 200 milligrams.
The optical property of a gemstone that causes double refraction of light, resulting in a perceived doubling of images.
The ability of a gemstone to display different colors when viewed from different angles.
The emission of visible light by a gemstone when exposed to ultraviolet light.
A measure of a gemstone's resistance to scratching and abrasion, often measured on the Mohs scale.
The ratio of a gemstone's weight compared to the weight of an equal volume of water. It helps identify the type of gemstone.
The quality and intensity of light reflection from a gemstone's surface.
The tendency of a gemstone to break along planes of weakness, resulting in smooth surfaces.
The separation of white light into its spectral colors as it passes through a gemstone, contributing to the gem's fire.
A gemstone's resistance to scratches, measured on the Mohs scale.
Visual phenomena observed in gemstones, including asterism, chatoyancy, and color change.
A carved relief image, often depicting gothic or Victorian-inspired scenes, set in jewelry as a pendant or brooch.
Stone Setting Glossary
A technique where a metal collar is wrapped around a gemstone to secure it in place, leaving the top of the gem visible.
A setting that uses metal prongs to secure a gemstone, allowing more light to reach the stone and enhance its brilliance.
A setting where gemstones are secured between two parallel metal walls, creating a continuous row of stones.
A setting technique that involves closely setting small gemstones, usually diamonds, side by side to create a surface that appears paved with stones.
A setting in which the gemstone is set into the metal, with its table flush or level with the surface of the jewelry.
A modern setting where the gemstone is held in place by the pressure of the metal band, creating the illusion that the stone is floating.
A setting technique where small metal beads are pushed down to secure a gemstone in place.
A setting style where multiple small gemstones are grouped closely together to create the appearance of a larger stone.
A setting designed specifically for cabochon-cut gemstones, securing them without the need for facets.
A setting method where gemstones are placed side by side without any visible metal, creating a seamless and continuous appearance.
A setting where a gemstone is flush-set into a concave surface, with the metal surrounding the stone.
A setting where a central gemstone is surrounded by a circle or halo of smaller stones, often enhancing the overall brilliance.
Split Prong Setting:
A variation of the prong setting where each prong is split into two, creating a more delicate and intricate appearance.
A setting style where metal beads or granules are arranged around the gemstone for decorative purposes.
A setting where arches of metal rise up on either side of the gemstone, resembling the architecture of a cathedral.
A setting that resembles a basket, with metal wires or prongs supporting the gemstone from beneath.
A setting technique that uses metal plates or mirrors to create the illusion of a larger or differently shaped gemstone.
A setting where the gemstone appears to be suspended between two points, often with an open design.
A setting where gemstones are secured between two parallel metal rails, allowing light to enter from the sides.
Setting small gemstones into cylindrical metal tubes to create a sleek and modern look.